Social Innovations Journal 2022-05-18T05:40:50-07:00 Nicholas Torres Open Journal Systems <p>Social Innovations Journal (SIJ) is dedicated to social innovators and entrepreneurs who work at the cross section between the private sector, government, and not-for-profits and aligns them toward collective social impact goals and public policy. SIJ chronicles social innovations and enterprises addressing the world’s most challenging issues surrounding social policy, leadership, human capital, and systems. In collaboration with government, philanthropy, not-for-profits and universities, the Journal bridges formal research and real-life experience.</p> <p><strong>Social Innovations Journal (SIJ) provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater exchange of knowledge.</strong></p> <p><strong>This journal is open access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to users or / institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to full text articles in this journal without asking prior permission from the publisher or author as long as acknowledge the original author as stated in the Creative Commons License. </strong></p> <p><strong><a href="">Please Visit THE SOCIAL INNOVATIONS JOURNAL ARCHIVES (EDITIONS 1 - 55) HERE</a></strong></p> <p><a href=""><strong>BECOME A MEMBER OF THE SOCIAL INNOVATIONS JOURNAL for ACCESS to SYMPOSIUMS, WORKSHOPS, and COURSES</strong></a></p> <p>The mission of the Social Innovations Journal is to promote innovative ideas informed by data and research, incubate social innovation and thought leadership, and to spark a culture of innovation leading to improved social sector products and services, systems and policies. SIJ is creating a new standard for social innovations and enterprise publications by including the “why” behind their innovation, their bottom line impact (social and financial), and the system and policy implications.</p> <p>The Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) defines social innovation as a mechanism that “can concern conceptual, process or product change, organizational change and changes in financing, and can deal with new relationships with stakeholders and territories.” The OECD’s Forum on Social Innovation identifies the core components of social innovation as: </p> <ul> <li class="show">“identifying and delivering new services that improve the quality of life of individuals and communities; and </li> <li class="show">“identifying and implementing new labour market integration processes, new competencies, new jobs, and new forms of participation, as diverse elements that each contribute to improving the position of individuals in the workforce.” </li> </ul> <p>In the words of the OECD, <strong>“Social innovation is distinct from economic innovation because it is not about introducing new types of production or exploiting new markets in itself but is about satisfying new needs not provided by the market (even if markets intervene later) or creating new, more satisfactory ways of insertion in terms of giving people a place and a role in production.</strong></p> <p>“The key distinction is that social innovation deals with improving the welfare of individuals and community through employment, consumption or participation, its expressed purpose being therefore to provide solutions for individual and community problems.”</p> <p><strong>Open Access, Licensing, and Copyright</strong> </p> <p>The Social Innovations Journal is loyal open access for academic work, permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of its articles and to use them for any other lawful purpose. All the articles published in this journal are free to access immediately from the date of publication. We do not charge any fees for any reader to download articles for their own scholarly use.</p> <div id="deed-conditions" class="row"> <h3><strong>The Social Innovations Journal permits the Creative Commons License:</strong></h3> <h2><span class="cc-license-title">Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported</span> <span class="cc-license-identifier">(CC BY-NC-ND 3.0)</span></h2> <h3>Under the following terms:</h3> <ul class="license-properties col-md-offset-2 col-md-8" dir="ltr"> <li class="license by"> <p><strong>Attribution</strong> — You must give <a id="appropriate_credit_popup" class="helpLink" tabindex="0" title="" href="" data-original-title="">appropriate credit</a>, provide a link to the license, and <a id="indicate_changes_popup" class="helpLink" tabindex="0" title="" href="" data-original-title="">indicate if changes were made</a>. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.<span id="by-more-container"></span></p> </li> <li class="license nc"> <p><strong>NonCommercial</strong> — You may not use the material for <a id="commercial_purposes_popup" class="helpLink" tabindex="0" title="" href="" data-original-title="">commercial purposes</a>.<span id="nc-more-container"></span></p> </li> <li class="license nd"> <p><strong>NoDerivatives</strong> — If you <a id="some_kinds_of_mods_popup" class="helpLink" tabindex="0" title="" href="" data-original-title="">remix, transform, or build upon</a> the material, you may not distribute the modified material.<span id="nd-more-container"></span></p> </li> </ul> </div> <div class="row"> <ul id="deed-conditions-no-icons" class="col-md-offset-2 col-md-8"> <li class="license"><strong>No additional restrictions</strong> — You may not apply legal terms or <a id="technological_measures_popup" class="helpLink" tabindex="0" title="" href="" data-original-title="">technological measures</a> that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.</li> </ul> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-md-offset-1 col-md-10"><hr /></div> </div> <div id="deed-understanding" class="row"> <h3>Notices:</h3> <ul class="understanding license-properties col-md-offset-2 col-md-8"> <li class="license">You do not have to comply with the license for elements of the material in the public domain or where your use is permitted by an applicable <a id="exception_or_limitation_popup" class="helpLink" tabindex="0" title="" href="" data-original-title="">exception or limitation</a>.</li> <li class="license">No warranties are given. The license may not give you all of the permissions necessary for your intended use. For example, other rights such as <a id="publicity_privacy_or_moral_rights_popup" class="helpLink" tabindex="0" title="" href="" data-original-title="">publicity, privacy, or moral rights</a> may limit how you use the material</li> </ul> <h3><strong>Copyright and Publishing Rights </strong></h3> <p>For the licenses indicated above, authors retain the copyright and full publishing rights without restrictions.</p> </div> <p> </p> Obstacles to Attaining the Vision of Equal Opportunity for People with Intellectual Disability/Autism 2022-05-05T09:30:46-07:00 Mark Davis <p>This paper addresses the obstacles that impede efforts to enable people with intellectual disability and/or autism to experience equal life opportunities. Specifically addressed are chronic underfunding, workforce challenges, over-regulation, and a failure to focus on meaningful life outcomes. </p> 2022-05-18T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Mark Davis Public Policies to Advance the Intellectual and Developmental Disability Sector 2022-05-14T17:38:22-07:00 Kristen Farry Michael Clark <p>Healthcare access and an adequate workforce serve as two mounting challenges for the intellectual and developmental disability (I/DD) sector. Passage of The Healthcare Extension and Accessibility for Developmentally Disabled and Underserved Population, or HEADs Up Act, could greatly improve access by creating a medically underserved population (MUP) designation for the I/DD population. New and expanded workforce visa programs could meet the challenges associated with increased demand and limited supply for the Direct Support Professional (DSP) labor pool.</p> 2022-05-18T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Kristen Farry, Michael Clark State Rates Miss the Mark 2022-05-09T08:28:59-07:00 Gary Blumenthal Patrick DeMico <p>This opinion piece highlights the state of intellectual disability services in Pennsylvania, including a comparison of provider vs. state employee rates, waiting lists for services, and rates for reimbursements for services. The author proposes improvements to reimbursement rates that will accommodate appropriate wages for Direct Support Professionals.</p> 2022-05-18T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Gary Blumenthal, Patrick DeMico Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Pennsylvania ID/A Service System 2022-04-18T12:29:05-07:00 Mark Davis Ilana Gruber Chris Tabakin Chris Elliott Scott Spreat <p style="font-weight: 400;">This paper summarizes a series of studies on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the Intellectual Disability/Autism service and support system. The impacts on consumers, staff, and programs were quantified.</p> 2022-05-18T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Mark Davis, Ilana Gruber, Chris Tabakin, Chris Elliott; Scott Spreat Unending Challenges and Unfair Practices Plague System 2022-05-10T07:47:07-07:00 Marcia Adams <p style="font-weight: 400;">This case study highlights the experience of a New Jersey family grappling with competing policy priorities put in jeopardy access to the services needed by their adult son, who has multiple disabilities. He requires 24/7 support and resides at Woods Services in Pennsylvania. Federal legislation proposes increased funding but limits where this funding can be used. A severe direct care worker shortage further jeopardizes access to services. </p> 2022-05-18T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Marcia Adams Choice and Equity in Housing for Those with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (I/DD) 2022-04-09T17:18:18-07:00 Susan Anderson <p style="font-weight: 400;">This is a personal story that describes my experience as a mother fighting a deeply flawed and dangerous State initiative that was aimed at those with profound disabilities, medical fragility, and severe behaviors. Our grassroots movement sought to protect their right to live in the residential setting most appropriate for their level of disability while demanding equity and fairness in a system that is failing far too many.</p> 2022-05-18T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Susan Anderson A Supply and Demand Perspective on the Workforce Crisis in Intellectual Disability 2022-04-14T07:00:33-07:00 Scott Spreat <p style="font-weight: 400;">The contemporary Direct Support Professional workforce crisis in the intellectual disability industry was examined from a supply and demand perspective. It was suggested that because provider agencies have little control over the prices they receive for the services they provide, they are unable to create an equilibrium between the demand for and supply of Direct Support Professionals. Fixed governmental prices were suggested as a root cause of the crisis.</p> 2022-05-18T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Scott Spreat Philanthropy’s Role and Response to Local Hospital Closings: An opportunity for Healthcare Disruption 2022-05-09T09:51:23-07:00 Vanessa Briggs <p style="font-weight: 400;">As a philanthropic leader, I reflect upon the impact of a local community hospital closing its doors after forty years, which serves a large low-income population and reflect upon the opportunity to design and build a comprehensive integrated health system as a result of the hospital closing. The questions addressed in this reflection include: How can a philanthropic organization, like The Alliance become part of the solution? Can the status quo of healthcare delivery be disrupted to center equity into an integrated care model as part of a broader new healthcare ecosystem? Can a foundation be poised to address the implications of the overall health and morale of the community due to the recent hospital closure along with the inequities and disparities related to the pandemic?</p> 2022-05-18T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Vanessa Briggs Making the Case: Philanthropy’s Role in the Movement to Reimagine Criminal Justice 2022-04-01T10:27:08-07:00 Allana Jackson Alexandra Williams <p>A broad ecosystem of nonprofits, coalitions, and leaders of color are working across the United States to transform the criminal legal system to one that is just and equitable. Insights from those doing the work and a look into the progress, victories, as well as opposition from powerful interests, offers philanthropies lessons on how to effectively support the movement .For funders interested in criminal justice reform, in particular, movement building is central&nbsp;because it strives to reimagine the criminal legal system and the harm that it causes. That kind of transformative systems change is the very work, as complex as it is, that movements, as complex as they are, are designed to do.</p> 2022-05-18T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Elizabeth London, Allana Jackson, Alexandra Williams It’s All the Same – Seeing Through the Lens of the Patient 2022-05-09T08:02:25-07:00 Patrick DeLeon Abby Diehl Khalilah McCants <p>The healthcare delivery system is changing. A model of patient-centered interdisciplinary care is of paramount importance, which integrates primary care, behavioral, and mental health services with the social determinants of health. As the next generation of healthcare practitioners is trained, incorporating methods such as Motivational Interviewing and active listening skills are critical strategies for achieving patient-centered care. The increasing number of safety-net hospital closures not only reduces access to care for patients but also presents barriers to identifying sufficient clinical placement sites which are beneficial for training a diverse workforce in locations with a wide range of services.</p> 2022-05-18T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Patrick DeLeon, Ph.D., MPH, JD, Abby Diehl Ph.D., Khalilah McCants DNP, MSN, RN-BC No Place to Go 2022-05-13T17:35:55-07:00 Michael Clark <p>Philadelphia has experienced significant increases in crime and violence in recent history. This violence extends to the classroom, impacting youth across the city and region. After several pieces of investigative journalism that surfaced decades of abuse at institutions serving juveniles with the most complex needs, Philadelphia and Pennsylvania policymakers acted swiftly to close offending institutions. This article explores what happens to youth after closures, and the collateral damage of fast decision making.</p> 2022-05-18T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Michael Clark An Analysis of Current Anti-Human Trafficking Policies and Approaches and Recommendations 2022-05-07T14:15:07-07:00 Yanni Dong <div> <p><span lang="EN-US">The U.S. Department of Homeland Security (2015) considers human trafficking as a form of modern-day slavery due to the fact that it involves the use of force, fraud, or coercion to exploit adults and children into some type of labor or commercial sex. It is estimated that about 27 to 45.8 million people are victims of trafficking globally. Since the enactment of the <em>Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA)</em> passed by Congress in 2000, a tremendous amount of effort has been put into combating this modern-day crime. However, with the implementation of the 3P approach introduced in TVPA, the result has yet to be promising. This is mainly due to the lack of interagency collaboration, unequally distributed resources, and the absence of an effective victim-oriented framework. This article proposes the collaboration amongst various anti-human trafficking agencies as well as provides recommendations for systematic change to ensure the protection of the human rights of human trafficking victims. </span></p> </div> 2022-05-18T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Yanni Dong The Challenges of Daycare for Special Needs Children 2022-05-04T06:47:49-07:00 Dianna Kelly <p>The demand for day-care services for children with special needs exceeds the current supply of such supports. This paper examines some of the causes of this disequilibrium and offers some policy recommendations to help reduce the magnitude of this problem. </p> 2022-05-18T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Dianna Kelly Implementing School-Wide Positive Behavior Supports in an Alternative Setting: Practical Implications for Success with Complex Students 2022-05-04T06:26:55-07:00 Maura Roberts <p>Effective behavioral practices and school structures are critical to improving the outcomes of students served in an alternative education setting (AE). School-wide Positive Behavior Supports (SW-PBIS) offers a promising approach to improving student outcomes in an alternative setting (AE). The purpose of this article is three-fold: 1) examine the impact of SW-PBIS over three years in an alternative education setting, 2) review the features of SW-PBIS appropriate for implementation in an AE, and 3) demonstrate the impact of SW-PBIS with a special education only population. A Spring 2020 assessment conducted by an external evaluation team, indicated that Woods schools are implementing the Tier I framework with fidelity. Overall, initial results suggest that SW-PBIS can help restructure an alternative school environment to better serve students.</p> 2022-05-18T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Maura Roberts Quality of Life Outcomes Among Participants in an Inclusive Postsecondary Education Program at a Mid-Atlantic University 2022-02-17T07:30:08-08:00 Ann Marie Licata James Conroy <p style="font-weight: 400;">Students with intellectual disabilities attending an inclusive postsecondary education (IPSE) program were interviewed about their perceptions of changes in qualities of life, as well as their use of time, autonomy, goals, and relationships. The results supported the conclusions that the students perceived significantly improved qualities of life, large increases in autonomy, and evidence of making new friends on campus. The method relied on students’ memory, and future work must utilize true pre and post designs to attain higher scientific confidence. Nonetheless, the results were strongly positive and supported the continuation and expansion of the model. Variations in IPSE models and degrees of campus inclusiveness are discussed.</p> 2022-05-18T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Ann Marie Licata, James Conroy Advances in Diversion Court Models for Individuals with Intellectual Disability 2022-05-12T09:11:54-07:00 Elizabeth Hayden Tine Hansen-Turton <p>Diversion or treatment courts have a long track record of success in diverting people with mental health issues from prison into services, helping to prevent crises and violence. This opinion piece advocates for similar diversion programs that would support individuals with intellectual disabilities, who are overrepresented in the prison system, and applauds such a new service in Chester County, Pennsylvania, which is being launched to address this need.</p> 2022-05-18T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Elizabeth Hayden, Tine Hansen-Turton Providing Treatment for Intellectual Disability Extremes 2022-03-31T12:44:24-07:00 Scott Spreat <p style="font-weight: 400;">This paper highlights the need for specialized treatment services for individuals who have intellectual disability concomitant with severe mental health challenges as evidenced by significant forms of intropunitive and extra punitive aggression. Limitations of current funding and regulatory approaches are discussed. <br /><br /></p> 2022-05-18T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Scott Spreat Creating a System of Care for Pennsylvania's Most At-Risk Population 2022-05-04T12:23:08-07:00 Monica Moser Ryan Garrison <p>There has been a systematic shift towards community-based placements and services.&nbsp; Woods Community Services is filling the gaps between the highest level of care (Inpatient) and the lowest levels of care.&nbsp; By filling these gaps we are able to provide a complete continuum of care for indivuals with ID and Autusm.&nbsp; The WCS group home model fills the gap for those who are too difficult for a traditional group home model.</p> 2022-05-18T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Monica Moser, Ryan Serving People with Intellectual Disability and Mental Illness: Five Decades 2022-05-09T09:08:33-07:00 Terrence McNelis <p style="font-weight: 400;">This essay describes the scope of five decades working in the field of intellectual disability and mental illness, and provides highlights of the influence of key researchers and practitioners on the author and on the field which still have an impact today.</p> 2022-05-18T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Terrence McNelis The Rose-Colored Balance Sheet 2022-04-27T13:02:45-07:00 Stacy DiStefano <p style="font-weight: 400;">As the fiscal year comes to a close, provider organizations in the human services space should be cautious about how they view their balance sheets while staying laser-focused on a strategy to thrive in a post-pandemic funding environment. </p> 2022-05-18T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Stacy DiStefano Protecting our most vulnerable: The Woods Services Pandemic Case Study 2022-05-11T11:17:07-07:00 Stephen Kolesk <p>As a population health management organization, Woods provides comprehensive medical care, education, employment opportunities, and support services for more than 22,000 individuals across its System of Care who live with complex medical conditions as well as intellectual and developmental disabilities as well as those who suffer the consequences of traumatic brain injury. Individuals with intellectual disabilities suffered higher rates of COVID-19 infection and death as a result of COVID-19 than the rest of the population across the country. However, there were no deaths among the individuals Woods serves throughout the two-year pandemic, few hospitalizations, and a remarkably small number of infections overall. This case study highlights the key elements to achieving these outcomes, which lie in Woods’ already-established healthcare capacity, the formation of the Medical Center at Woods which provides integrated primary and behavioral health care, its population health approach, and a strong leadership team which managed Woods’ response to the COVID-19 pandemic.</p> 2022-05-18T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 MD