Social Innovations Journal <p>Social Innovations Journal (SIJ) is dedicated to social innovators and entrepreneurs who work at the cross section between the private sector, government, and not-for-profits and aligns them toward collective social impact goals and public policy.&nbsp; SIJ chronicles social innovations and enterprises addressing the world’s most challenging issues surrounding social policy, leadership, human capital, and systems. In collaboration with government, philanthropy, not-for-profits and universities, the Journal bridges formal research and real-life experience.</p> <p>The mission of the Social Innovations Journal is to promote innovative ideas informed by data and research, incubate social innovation and thought leadership, and to spark a culture of innovation leading to improved social sector products and services, systems and policies.&nbsp; SIJ is creating a new standard for social innovations and enterprise publications by including the “why” behind their innovation, their bottom line impact (social and financial), and the system and policy implications.</p> <p>The Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) defines social innovation as a&nbsp;mechanism that “can concern conceptual, process or product change, organizational change and&nbsp;changes in financing, and can deal with new relationships with stakeholders and territories.” The OECD’s&nbsp;Forum on Social Innovation identifies the core components of social innovation as:&nbsp;</p> <ul> <li class="show">“identifying and delivering new services that improve the quality of life of individuals and&nbsp;communities; and&nbsp;</li> <li class="show">“identifying and implementing new labour market integration processes, new competencies,&nbsp;new jobs, and new forms of participation, as diverse elements that each contribute to improving&nbsp;the position of individuals in the workforce.”&nbsp;</li> </ul> <p>In the words of the OECD, <strong>“Social innovation is distinct from economic innovation because it is not&nbsp;about introducing new types of production or exploiting new markets in itself but is about satisfying&nbsp;new needs not provided by the market (even if markets intervene later) or creating new, more&nbsp;satisfactory ways of insertion in terms of giving people a place and a role in production.</strong></p> <p>“The key distinction is that social innovation deals with improving the welfare of individuals and&nbsp;community through employment, consumption or participation, its expressed purpose being therefore&nbsp;to provide solutions for individual and community problems.”</p> en-US (Nicholas Torres) (Nicholas Torres) Fri, 18 Sep 2020 09:29:24 -0700 OJS 60 Social Accountability and Accreditation <p>Today’s reality all over the world has shown a huge disparity in the quality, equity, relevance, partnership and efficiency in the provision of health services resulting in huge gap of health status in many societies across the globe, be it in the developed and the developing countries. A number of reasons have been discussed. One most important reason is the disconnected between medical schools and health profession education institutions with their ecosystem and community they are mandated to serve. The concept of social accountability endorsed by the WHO since 1995 has not really been embraced by medical and health profession education institutions and not yet supported by key policy makers and health managers in many regions and countries. A few case studies have proved that the concept of social accountability is feasible and managable; and it eventually brings beneficial impact for the society in improving the health status. Existing guidelines and approaches&nbsp; could be used to accelerate the adoption of social accountability as long as key actors from international, national, institution and community levels are orchestrated congruently. A new paradigm in school’s accreditation embracing social accountability concept could reinforce this venture.</p> Titi Savitri Prihatiningsih, Yassein Kamal, Robert Woollard, Julian Fisher, Mohamed Elhassan Abdalla, Charles Boelen Copyright (c) 2020 Social Innovations Journal Fri, 18 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0700 Enhancing Social Accountability Skills in Medical Students Through Community School Projects <p>Social Accountability competencies for medical students are not included in the Indian medical curriculum. To practice in the community, it is imperative that graduates develop these competencies. This requires sustained interaction with the community. In this artice, we present an innovative project called, "Helping Hands Helping Minds," designed by the student wing of the UNESCO Chair in Bioethics (Haifa) to help students develop skills in social accountability through school-related projects in the community. </p> Mary Mathew Copyright (c) 2020 Social Innovations Journal Fri, 18 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0700 Experiential Learning for Social Accountability: Dhanvatari Seva Yatra by Government Medical College Bhavnagar Students and Faculty <p>The Northwest area of India has a very poor health infrastructure due to disparities in the area, and the approach and availability of health care professionals. Students and faculty of different health professional streams from Bhavnagar Medical College join every year in a mega health camp known as Dhanavatri Seva Yatra for the last 15 years. This activity is conducted without any financial support from the government. Transportation is taken care of by volunteers and accommodations arranged locally. Every year for seven days they work in different areas of the northeast to serve the community. This helps to inculcate social accountability in students as explained by Kolb's experiential learning theory.</p> Chinmay shah Copyright (c) 2020 Social Innovations Journal Fri, 18 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0700 'Experiential Learning of Social Responsibility' -- A Case Study from D. A. Pandu Memorial R. V. Dental College, Bengaluru, India <p>Social responsibility, as a health professional competency is rarely, systematically taught or learned and students are expected to pick up from the “hidden curriculum.” The students may have limited opportunities to explore all the community groups who are at risk, but cannot access or afford care. In the process they might miss out on understanding the complex socio-cultural political determinants which influence the health situation of these groups.</p> <p>To offset the limited opportunities of actual community exposure, we have adopted a “visualization process,” a learning technique commonly employed in Neuro Linguistic Programming. Through the visualization process, the student engages all of their sensory acuities, while sitting in the classroom and is able to empathize with the community. Visualization, faculty guided briefing, and self-reflection by the students has the potential to awaken the “social responsibility” consciousness amongst students, even when opportunities of field based training are limited.</p> Dr. Jyotsna Srinagesh, Dr. Harikiran A G, Dr. Asha R. Iyengar, Dr. Deepti Vadavi; Dr. Vinodhini Krishna Copyright (c) 2020 Social Innovations Journal Fri, 18 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0700 Linking Social Entrepreneur Education to Strengthen A Medical School’s Social Accountability Mission <p>Social entrepreneurship education is an emerging concept that provides a promising approach to educate future physicians to do more in solving public health and societal problems. However, misperception among medical teachers and managers in medical schools about social entrepreneurship education sometimes becomes a serious obstacle that hinders its potential as an opportunity to offer different ways of bringing about social change. We found in our project that social entrepreneurship education in medical schools had an intertextuality connection with social accountability for medical schools which has been promoted by WHO since 1995. In this article we would share our experience in delivering social entrepreneurship education in medical school as a way to capitalize on the social accountability vision of institutes by using an appreciative co-production approach.</p> Rachmad Bekti Copyright (c) 2020 Social Innovations Journal Fri, 18 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0700 Triggering the Art of Written Reflection in Medical Students <p>Critical reflection and reflective practice are essential skills for learning in the health professions. The Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram is a community-oriented medical school in Central India. One of their curricular innovations is the village adoption initiative where each batch of students adopts a village. Each student is allotted three to five families, who they follow up with for the next three and a half years. In order to make this exercise more purposeful, we taught the students how to write reflections. Samples of good reflective writing were shared. They were encouraged to be observant during the course of the social service camp and write their reflections daily.</p> <p>Writing reflections helped the students to focus on the task at hand. Journal writing stimulated them to think about issues beyond disease. Samples of reflective writing showed that the experience altered students’ understanding of the cultural, economic, and social context of health. Students also found this exercise useful in clarifying their own purpose of choosing a medical career. Introducing students to the art of reflection early in their course alters the way in which they approach their patients. It also inculcates professionalism in their manner.</p> Dr. Anshu, Dr. Subodh S. Gupta Copyright (c) 2020 Social Innovations Journal Fri, 18 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0700 Interprofessional Education/Practice and Team-based Care <p style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">According to the Framework for Action on Interprofessional Education and Collaborative Practice, the World Health Organization recognizes interprofessional collaboration in education and practice as an innovative strategy that will play an important role in mitigating the global health crisis.</span></p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">The purpose of this policy action article is to synthesize and provide background and useful, practical recommendations for how local change agents can design and deliver interprofessional education (IPE) that supports the development of collaboration-ready practitioners who can effectively meet the needs within their local context.</span></p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">The article concludes that now is the time for mass scale planning for phased change in education and practice that starts by building institutional capacity to host sustainable IPE programs and trace their impact on healthcare improvement. The article provides 5 recommendations</span> <span style="font-weight: 400;">for regional and global leaders as concrete steps for adoption and implementation in their local communities.</span></p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">The article serves as the beginning point of a toolbox for Academic Training Institutes (and the community in which interprofessional collaboration occurs) to adopt and implement interprofessional standards into their practices, with the intent of moving student-learning from the classroom into the field where patients and the interprofessional team – i.e. clinicians, cleaning personnel, community health workers – are.</span></p> <p> </p> Samar Ahmed, Toyese Oyeyemi, Prof. John H. V. Gilbert, Barbara Maxwell, Tony Claeys, Professor Ciraj Ali Copyright (c) 2020 Social Innovations Journal Fri, 18 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0700 Challenges and Strategies in the Construction of an Interprofessional Education Program: Collaborative Practice in the Context of Residency Programs <p><span class="TextRun SCXW201881208 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW201881208 BCX0">This article describes and discusses the st</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW201881208 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW201881208 BCX0">rategies developed by the inter</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW201881208 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW201881208 BCX0">professional team of a geriatric service&nbsp;</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW201881208 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW201881208 BCX0">built in the&nbsp;</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW201881208 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW201881208 BCX0">daily routine</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW201881208 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW201881208 BCX0">&nbsp;of its collaborative practice in elderly health care and in the de</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW201881208 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW201881208 BCX0">velopment of a program of inter</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW201881208 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW201881208 BCX0">professional education for two residency programs: medical and multiprofessional in elderly care.</span></span></p> Luciana Branco da Motta, Celia Pereira Caldas, Liv Katyuska de Carvalho Sampaio de Souza, Neide Gomes Oliveira Miguel Copyright (c) 2020 Social Innovations Journal Fri, 18 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0700 Medical and Health Students Promoting IPE Using Innovative Approaches <p><strong>Executive summary</strong></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Interprofessional education (IPE) is an essential pedagogical tool to advance with health professionals’ education towards providing patient care in a collaborative environment. </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">With multiple evidence showcasing its necessity for health students, still, not many students learn about it in their university curriculum. </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">The International Federation of Medical Students’ Associations (IFMSA) organized with other international health student organizations an international campaign to educate students about IPE, and assist them to act on IPE promotion locally. IFMSA also coordinated with the International Pharmaceutical Students’ Federation (IPSF) to host the first global IPE competition for health students with the participation of 300 students from 66 countries. IFMSA is also conducting a survey on IPE education in universities worldwide, and the results will be used by students to advocate for IPE inclusion in the curriculum in the future.</span></p> Saad Uakkas Copyright (c) 2020 Social Innovations Journal Fri, 18 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0700 Introducing Practice Management Education in The Dental Curriculum: Results and Recommendations from a Pilot Project in the Indian Context <p>Establishing and managing a dental clinic is essentially an entrepreneurial venture, and requires a multitude of competencies that go beyond the scientific and clinical aspects of dentistry. However, the dental curriculum in India does not have a separate practice management subject included in the curriculum. Avenues for assessing the competency in this domain are hence missing from the existing curriculum. Thus, the aim of the project was to develop a dental practice management education module within the existing curriculum.</p> <p>Recommendations for practice management education program was framed in consultation with dental practitioners, dental educationists, and an interprofessional (IP) team specifically founded in this context which included a lawyer, architect, financial expert, bioethical expert, engineer, and dental practitioners. These consultations resulted in the development of a module which was shortly introduced into the curriculum. The immediate outcomes along with recommendations for further improvement are discussed here.</p> Nanditha Sujir, Ciraj Ali Mohammed, Dilip G Naik, Ashita Uppoor, Animesh Jain Copyright (c) 2020 Social Innovations Journal Fri, 18 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0700 A Simulation-enhanced, Workplace-based Interprofessional Education for Patient Safety: Hacettepe University Undergraduate Experience <p>Interprofessional collaboration has become one of the most important and challenging issues in health care for the last 20 years. The gaps in the interprofessional collaboration and communication have been regarded as the main causes of medical errors in health care services. We have to develop educational programs with the responsibility of graduating health care professionals who will work in collaboration with other professionals at a safer workplace both for their patients and themselves. We started working in 2010. We had an aim of improved patient safety through an educational evolution called interprofessional with the help of simulation. Our first courses were electives for medical students in 2013. The<span class="Apple-converted-space"> </span>new version of the program as a two-year vertical, compulsory course for second and third year preclinical medical students of a six-year medical school in 2018. We worked with 10 departments and schools, and 16 units of the university hospitals; 75 health professionals and faculty members contributed as facilitators in the program. The students expressed satisfaction with their experiences in various workplaces of the hospitals, and their interactions with the students and the faculty members of other departments and schools. The program provided medical students with the opportunity of early patient contact and workplace experiences with various health care professionals.</p> Melih Elcin Copyright (c) 2020 Social Innovations Journal Fri, 18 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0700 Establishment of the Centre for Dental Education, An Interprofessional Educational Initiative <p class="Default" style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif;">The Yenepoya Dental Education Unit (YDEU), addresses the reform needed in the dental education system, to bring the field out of the silos. Each dental school has its educational vision, mission, program outcomes, teaching methods, and assessments, which are currently taught and assessed in silos. Present and future health workforces are facing increasing pressures in terms of the demand on health resources and increasingly complex health issues. Based on the current scenario and workforce requirements, in order to address the health problems we require a collaborative health workforce and interprofessional education is the way to go and its incorporation in the dental syllabus is the best way forward. </span></p> Imran Pasha Mohammed Copyright (c) 2020 Social Innovations Journal Fri, 18 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0700 More than Bricks and Mortar: The Right to Healthy Housing <p>More than one-third of the world’s population has experienced some form of lockdown during the COVID 19 pandemic. With so many people confined to their residences, homes are taking on new roles as classrooms, business places, meeting spaces, recreational areas, and in some cases, quarantine or hospital rooms. The pandemic is highlighting the importance of housing as a place of safety and health. The physical environment impacts every aspect of our health and well-being, either positively or negatively. Improved housing conditions can save lives, prevent disease, increase quality of life, reduce poverty, help mitigate climate change, and contribute to the achievement of Sustainable Development Goals.</p> <p>This paper seeks to reexamine the links between housing and health from a population health perspective. It uses evidence and case studies to outline issues and identify some best practices from around the world. It concludes with recommendations for improving health and quality of life through the lens of the physical environment in which we spend most of our time.</p> Dr Farah Shroff, Brian Valdez Copyright (c) 2020 Social Innovations Journal Fri, 18 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0700 Developing a Community Centered Approach in Public Health Advocacy: Utilizing Existing Community Social Groups ‘Chamas’ in Nairobi Urban Informal Settlements in Kenya <p>Poverty not only alienates people from the benefits of the health care system but also prevents them from participating in decision making which contributes to their overall health. People living in the urban informal settlements are prone to more health inequalities due to the provision of poor health and social services<a href="#_edn1" name="_ednref1">[i]</a>. Most of the solutions developed are spearheaded by people outside of the community and have inadequate community participation. Despite their disadvantaged economic situation, many community members have the potential to develop and implement development-conscious initiatives<a href="#_edn2" name="_ednref2">[ii]</a>. This can be manifested by the existence of social groups initiated by the local residents. These groups operate as savings' structures, pooled investment platforms, and offer credit facilities to their members<a href="#_edn3" name="_ednref3">[iii]</a>. They are locally known as "chamas." These "chamas" can be united under one umbrella body to advocate for better health and social services in the slums with the assistance of "influencers" and mainstream media.</p> <p> </p> <p><a href="#_ednref1" name="_edn1">[i]</a> Chege, Ezekiel N. "Challenges of Slum Upgrading for Urban Informal Settlements; Case of Soweto East Village in Kibera Informal Settlements, City of Nairobi." PhD diss., University of Nairobi, 2013</p> <p><a href="#_ednref2" name="_edn2">[ii]</a> Satterthwaite, David, Diana Mitlin, and Sheela Patel. "Engaging with the urban poor and their organizations for poverty reduction and urban governance." <em>New York, US: UNDP</em> (2011).</p> <p><a href="#_ednref3" name="_edn3">[iii]</a> Mwiti, F., &amp; Goulding, C. (2018). Strategies for community improvement to tackle poverty and gender issues: An ethnography of community based organizations (‘Chamas’) and women's interventions in the Nairobi slums. <em>European Journal of Operational Research</em>, <em>268</em>(3), 875-886.</p> <p> </p> Daniel Waruingi Copyright (c) 2020 Social Innovations Journal Fri, 18 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0700 Engaging and Giving: The Role of Health Professionals for Social Innovation and the Care of Vulnerable Communities <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt;"><span style="font-size: 11.0pt; font-family: 'Arial',sans-serif; color: black;">Different stakeholders carry out interventions in vulnerable communities in urban, rural, and dispersed areas, usually driven by altruistic and philanthropic intentions and may lack scientific support. They require the support of professionals who recognize the relevance of their work and are willing to get actively involved.</span> <span style="font-size: 11.0pt; font-family: 'Arial',sans-serif; color: black;">We seek to complement and enhance interventions carried out by different stakeholders, by providing feedback and solutions to communities and governmental entities. In addition we seek to enhance the recognition of stakeholders, promote trans-professional works, develop research, projects, policies, and innovations that allow the strengthening of public health oriented towards primary health care.</span></p> Alejandro Avelino Bonilla, Maria del Mar Moreno Gomez Copyright (c) 2020 Social Innovations Journal Fri, 18 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0700 Multi-Sectoral Mapping for Nutrition (MS4N) in Sindh, Pakistan <p>Service mapping has gained increasing significance in development work during the last decade, partly due to growing public demand for measurement and accountability in the use of resources. In Pakistan, childhood stunting (42%), acute malnutrition (23%), anemia (53.7%), and other micronutrient deficiencies among the women and children of Pakistan remain persistently high. In response to this crisis-like situation, each provincial government for the first time drew up multi-sectoral, integrated nutrition programs. In 2016, Sindh, one of the four provinces, designed an “Accelerated Action Plan (AAP) for Reduction of the Stunting and Malnutrition” whereby nutrition specific and sensitive strategies of eight sectors (Agriculture, Health, Education, Social Welfare, Population Welfare, Livestock, Fisheries and WASH) are integrated at all levels from the province to the district. </p> <p> </p> <p>In response to address the need of M&amp;E and Multi sectoral nutrition, a <em>Multi-Sectoral Mapping for Nutrition (MS4N)</em> - a computer based interactive system is being developed. The primary objective of the MSM4N is to strengthen nutrition surveillance systems and to streamline services (input) by each implementing partner. <em>MSM4N </em>is expected to be user friendly, robust, and capable of fostering multi-sectoral collaboration and complex system-wide problem solving. Specifically, it will help in identifying gaps and duplication of inputs within districts by mapping services (input) at all levels from province to village, and visually presenting these by sector and by implementing partners. Hence, offering a detailed mapping of stakeholders, their interventions, geographical and population coverage for decision making within the province.</p> <p> </p> <p>Despite that the innovation is still a work in progress; we were able to document several key lessons. Firstly, only socially desirable, economically feasible and institutionally viable are sustainable solutions. Second, the quality of service delivery also suffers from inadequate attention to legislative obligations and compliance control. For MIS, it is important to have Standardization, particularly in nomenclature, data coding and classification systems enables accurate capturing of data and leads to good reporting, thus making the content more beneficial. Finally, users- in this case province and district based programme staff and managers- must drive MIS, not the data collectors. This means that users need to be educated and enabled in demanding both control, administrative and inferential tabulations, that inform decision-making.</p> Zahra Ladhani Copyright (c) 2020 Social Innovations Journal Fri, 18 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0700 Exceptional primary care for exceptional times in Chile <p>Chile presents the highest incidence of SARS-Cov-2 worldwide. Mortality rates have increased ten-fold in Chile during the last two months. Emergency and hospital services have been overwhelmed.</p> <p>A partnership between the P. Universidad Católica de Chile, regional health authorities and municipalities was developed to address the management of patients with Covid-19 pneumonia in an area of extreme poverty in Santiago.</p> <p>A new program based on a 24-hour continuous clinical management of patients at primary health care centers was developed.&nbsp; In one month, 574 patients with Covid-19 pneumonia cared for. Only 31% had to be referred to emergency services and when home care was fully implemented 111 patients were able to return home to continue oxygen therapy and rehabilitation. The new program is a concrete innovation that represents the potentiality and adaptability of primary care and can reduce the burden of the Covid-19 epidemic in Latin America.&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> Philippa Moore, Klaus Puschel, Paulina Roajs, Paulina Pinto, Alvaro Tellez, Victoria Cuadra Copyright (c) 2020 Social Innovations Journal Fri, 18 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0700 Australian Aboriginal Community Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic <p>Australian Aboriginal communities planned our initial response to the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic as we saw the devastating impacts of outbreaks in parts of Europe and the U.S. Community education and coalition-building led to a response focused on empowerment and guidance for government investment that was proportionate to the potential of the crisis. Travel bans and enforced isolation of visitors were the key mechanisms to keep COVID-19 out of communities. By preventing entry of people infected with COVID-19 into Aboriginal communities, hygiene and physical distancing were less important to stop spread of infection.</p> <p>In June 2020, Australia appears to have controlled community transmission of COVID-19. However, in the longer term the risk of entry of COVID-19 to Aboriginal communities remains because of ongoing colonization, racism, and social disadvantage.</p> Rosalie Schultz Copyright (c) 2020 Social Innovations Journal Fri, 18 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0700 Addressing Students' Uncertainty During COVID-19 from the Social Accountability Standpoint, A Case Study of Menoufia Medical School <p>The global pandemic has proven to be challenging for students in more ways than one. With campuses closed nationwide, executive orders for lockdown, and calls for people to stay home, “Stay Home, Stay Safe,” many students found themselves under mental stress and uncertainty in ways they hadn’t before. The uncertainty was derived by an indeterminate roadmap, the pandemic phobia, and the risk of being infected, financial stress, the stigma of the disease, and the possibility of being called for exams during such a challenging circumstance.</p> Nagwa N. hegazy, Rania M. Azmy, Naser A. Agizy Copyright (c) 2020 Social Innovations Journal Fri, 18 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0700 COVID19 Prevalence and Antibody Seroprevalence Among Individuals with Intellectual Disability <p>Approximately 20% of the residential census at a population healthcare facility tested positive for COVID19 during the period from March 2020 through early June 2020. Individuals residing within the facility had intellectual disability, autism, and/or brain injury.&nbsp;&nbsp; Fifteen were hospitalized, but all subsequently were discharged.&nbsp; Two hospitalized clients died as a result of factors unrelated to COVID-19, aned a third was pronounced dead upon arrival at the Emergency room, again as a result of factors unrelated to COVID-19.&nbsp; individuals died as a result of factors unrelated to COVID-19.&nbsp; Approximately ¾ of the infected clients developed antibodies within 28 days of initial diagnosis.&nbsp; The development of antibodies could not be predicted from readily available demographic or medical variables</p> Scott Spreat; Tiffany Adams, Darlene Barnes, Jennifer Caputo, Dawn Diamond, Tine, Deborah Jones, Stephen Kolesk Copyright (c) 2020 Social Innovations Journal Fri, 18 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0700